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Translation Support

Authors Paul Walsh

Following on from a general pattern for language support, and the explicit support of metadata translations in Frictionless Data descriptors, it would be desirable to support translations in source data.

We currently have two patterns for this in discussion. Both patterns arise from real-world implementations that are not specifically tied to Frictionless Data.

One pattern suggests inline translations with the source data, reserving the @ symbol in the naming of fields to denote translations.

The other describes a pattern for storing additional translation sources, co-located with the “source” file described in a descriptor data.


There are no known implementations of this pattern in the Frictionless Data core libraries at present.



Uses a column naming convention for accessing translations.

Tabular resource descriptors support translations using {field_name}@{lang_code} syntax for translated field names. lang_code MUST be present in the languages array that applies to the resource.

Any field with the @ symbol MUST be a translation field for another field of data, and MUST be parsable according to the {field_name}@{lang_code} pattern.

If a translation field is found in the data that does not have a corresponding field (e.g.: title@es but no title), then the translation field SHOULD be ignored.

If a translation field is found in the data that uses a lang_code not declared in the applied languages array, then the translation field SHOULD be ignored.

Translation fields MUST NOT be described in a schema fields array.

Translation fields MUST match the type, format and constraints of the field they translate, with a single exception: Translation fields are never required, and therefore constraints.required is always false for a translation field.

Co-located translation sources

Uses a file storage convention for accessing translations.

To be contributed by @jheeffer

  • Has to handle local and remote resources
  • Has to be explicit about the translation key/value pattern in the translation files
# local
# remote